About The UAE
The economy of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) is the second largest amongst the Arab countries and is the most diverse economy in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). The UAE also has the largest consumer base amongst all Arab countries and is considered one of the most open economies in the world.
While its economy is largely oil-driven, the UAE government has diversified and established financial centres within the Gulf state to attract investment. One of these financial centres is the Dubai International Financial Centre (DIFC), a special economic zone in the UAE, which serves as a gateway to the Middle East, Africa and South Asia (MEASA) markets.
The government has recently amended laws to allow 100% foreign ownership of companies involved in 122 different activities in agriculture, manufacturing and services, removing the need for a local partner. Companies may also opt for 100% ownership in one of the UAE’s free-trade zones. Other benefits such as 0% tax rates and an English-speaking environment have made Dubai and the rest of the UAE an attractive destination for foreign investment, a key factor in the UAE's success in diversifying its economy. The lack of capital requirements to establish businesses, a streamlined licensing procedure and a stable banking sector have further enhanced the business climate in the UAE.
While the UAE has most of its trading relationships within the MEASA markets, China is its second largest source of imports. Given the Gulf state’s status as a vibrant centre of trade and commerce in the Middle East as well as its proximity to China’s Belt and Road routes, the UAE is well positioned to benefit as a strategic hub between East and West.
What solutions are available in The UAE?
|Interest Optimisation||Maximise your interest yield from for your balances held with the bank.|
|Notional Pooling||Cash balances in different accounts are notionally offset to derive the net balance, which is then used to calculate interest.|
|Sweeping/ Zero Balance Account (ZBA)||ZBA are checking accounts with zero balances where funds are physically swept to eliminate excess balances and maintain greater control over disbursements.|
Corporate Treasury in United Arab Emirates
The UAE, which is a federation of seven states (Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al Khaimah, Sharjah and Umm al Quwain), is one of the fastest-growing economies in the Middle East, and serves as a financial hub for the region and Africa. Here, we highlight some of the key benefits relevant to treasury and cash management in the UAE.
Financial Market Development
- The World Economic Forum ranks the UAE 31st in the world for its financial system in The Global Competitiveness Report 2019.
- It ranks the UAE 46th in the world for the soundness of its banks, while it rates it fourth for venture capital availability, and ninth for financing to SMEs.
- The UAE has a highly developed business infrastructure, an excellent macroeconomic environment, an efficient labour market and strong legal rights.
- The UAE has no foreign-exchange controls.
- The main financial centre is Dubai.
- There are 45 free-trade zones, known as Free Zones, in the UAE that have special tax, customs and imports regimes, as well as their own regulations. Each Free Zone is designed around one or more business categories and only offers licenses to companies in these categories.
Sophistication of Banking Systems
- The UAE has 21 domestic banks and 38 foreign banks, while around 40 banks also operate a representative office. The three largest banks are majority state-owned. There are eight dedicated Islamic banks in the UAE which account for 18.6% of the banking sector's total assets.
- The UAE is the main foreign-exchange hub for the region, and an offshore renminbi centre. Its foreign-exchange market has an average daily turnover of USD45.89 billion, accounting for 0.6% of global turnover (Bank for International Settlements Triennial Central Bank Survey 2019).
- Dubai is the world's largest centre for sukuk listings, which totalled USD65.4 billion at the end of 2019. Conventional bonds issued by governments and corporations are also available.
- The banking industry is regulated by the Central Bank of the United Arab Emirates. Regulation is in line with international standards.
- The Dubai International Finance Centre is regulated by the Dubai Financial Services Authority.
- The UAE does not have a federal corporate income tax (CIT) regime at present, but the government is currently studying the possibility of establishing one. In the late 1960s, each of the seven Emirates enacted its own income tax decree with scope to impose CIT on all companies (including branches and permanent establishments) at a rate up to 55%. For the most part, however, only companies operating in the UAE in the production of oil and gas as well as the extraction of natural resources are being held accountable for CIT.
- Depending on the Emirate and its specific banking tax decrees, branches of foreign banks may be taxed at a flat rate of 20%.
- The standard rate for Value Added Tax (VAT) is 5%, with certain goods and services being zero rated and some exempted.
- There are no stamp duties laws in the UAE.
- There are no withholding taxes in the UAE.
- The UAE has more than 40 Free Zones in which businesses are generally eligible for tax holidays of 15 to 50 years.
- The UAE has tax treaties with more than 90 countries and territories.
- The UAE is a signatory to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's Multilateral Competent Authority Agreement, through which information is exchanged between tax administrations, to provide a single, global picture on some key indicators of economic activity within multinational enterprises.
Benefits for Regional Treasury Centres
- The Dubai International Finance Centre acts as the regional financial hub for the Middle East and Africa.
- It is a popular location for companies' regional treasury and pooling operations, as well as shared service centres.
- The UAE is a low-tax environment with trading hours that overlap with Southeast Asia and Europe. Companies operating in Free Zones can enjoy up to 50 years of CIT exemption.
- The UAE is a regional renminbi hub.
- The UAE Funds Transfer System settles transactions in real time.
- Cash concentration between resident and non-resident companies and cross-border cash concentration is permitted in the UAE.
- Notional pooling and cross-border notional pooling is permitted.
- The United Arab Emirates has 21 domestic banks and 78 foreign banking operations (either banks or representative offices). Of those 59 banks and representative offices, 17 are dedicated Islamic banks or offer Islamic window services.
- There are a total of 381 financial institutions in the UAE, and these include investment banks, wholesale banks, commercial banks and finance companies.
- Four local banks, First Abu Dhabi Bank (FAB, merger of National Bank of Abu Dhabi and First Gulf Bank), Emirates NBD (merger of Emirates Bank International (EBI) and National Bank of Dubai), Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank (ADCB) and Dubai Islamic Bank (DIB), dominate the banking sector, together owning more than two-thirds of total assets (August 2019).
- The UAE's Islamic banking sector is the third-largest globally, next to Saudi Arabia and Malaysia, and accounts for 18.6% of the country's total banking assets.
- Residents may hold foreign and domestic currency accounts both domestically and overseas, whereby domestic currency accounts are freely convertible into foreign currency.
- Non-residents may hold foreign and domestic currency savings accounts domestically, whereby domestic currency accounts are freely convertible into foreign currency. However, non-residents (excluding non-resident banks) may not hold foreign and domestic currency current accounts pursuant to UAE Central Bank Circular 14/93.
- Interest is available on savings accounts, time deposit accounts and current accounts (upon approval by the Central Bank of the UAE).
Legal and Regulatory
- The Central Bank regulates and oversees the banking sector.
- A company is resident if:
- All shares are beneficially owned by residents of the UAE;
- Most of the company's income originates from business or trade conducted in the UAE, excluding an investment business; and
- Most of the value of the company's property is used for trade or business in the UAE.
- There are no foreign-exchange controls.
- The domestic currency is pegged to the US dollar: AED3.67: USD1.
- The UAE is a member of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). Future developments include a monetary union and a single currency between member-states.
- There is anti-money laundering and counterterrorism legislation in place.
- The UAE is a member of the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) and the Middle East and North Africa Financial Action Task Force (MENAFATF).
- A financial intelligence unit has been set up, the Anti-Money Laundering and Suspicious Cases Unit (AMLSCU), which is a member of the Egmont Group.
(UAE Funds Transfer System)
The UAE's Real-time Gross Settlement (RTGS) system
(Image-based Cheque Clearing System)
Paper-based and cheque-clearing system
(UAE Direct Debit System)
Automated deferred net settlement system
National ATM-sharing scheme
- Credit transfers can be paper-based or automated.
- Settlement done through UAEFTS same day.
- No value threshold.
- Used for payroll and supplier transactions by government and companies.
- Salaries paid by companies registered with the Ministry of Labour must be paid electronically through the Wages Protection System (UAEWPS).
Direct Debits (auto debits)
- Used for low-value, regular payments such as utility bills and government payments.
- Processed through the UAEDDS next day with funds received by beneficiary next day.
- Payment cards are the most popular mode of payment. Of sales transactions in the retail sector, 45% were paid with credit and debit cards, more than all other payment types combined (Euromonitor, 2017). The main card brands are Visa and MasterCard, and all cards are Europay, MasterCard and Visa (EMV)-compliant.
- Contactless card penetration is increasing and represented 50% of card transaction volume in 2019.
- Number of payment cards in circulation increased from 1.6 to 2.1 per person between 2014 and 2018. Of the current 19.7 million cards, 49% are debit cards, 30% are credit cards and 21% are prepaid cards.
- The banks each organise individual clearing and settlement arrangements for the card transactions.
- The Ministry of Finance and the NBAD issue the e-Dirham card, a reloadable pre-paid card which can be used to pay for public and private services. Payments can be made at EFTPOS terminals and online.
- The government has set up initiatives to promote and support the financial technology (fintech) sector and is recognised as the fintech centre of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). As such, it was the first city to launch a fintech regulatory regime in the region.
- The market has adopted a highly active regulatory sandbox system, known as the Regulatory Laboratory (RegLab), to facilitate innovation.
- As part of the UAE’s Vision 2021, the government launched an initiative to develop a National Payment Systems Strategy in order to build a cashless, efficient and competitive economy. It is working towards a sophisticated digital payments framework and has already implemented WPS, which ensures migrant workers are paid wages electronically.
- From 2018-2019, e-commerce payments accounted for 18% of all transactions, with forecasts expecting it to rise to 30% through 2020.
- Digital wallet use is on the rise, with digital payments increasing by 30% annually, supported by high mobile phone and internet penetration and a young, tech-savvy population. Popular digital wallets are global providers Apple Pay and Samsung Pay, as well as local players Emirates NBD Pay, Mashreq Pay and FAB payit.
- Cash-on-delivery payments still account for 19% of UAE eCommerce transactions amid online card transaction security and fraud concerns.
- Emirates Digital Wallet is in the final testing phase of the Klip payment and transfer app, which will be licensed and regulated by the Central Bank. Developed by the UAE Banks Federation, Klip doesn’t require a bank account and is targeted at the UAE’s more than one million unbanked residents.
- AliPay has partnered with Mashreq to provide a payment facility for visitors from East Asia and China. PayPal is only used by some e-commerce providers.
- The UAE’s first regulator of cryptocurrency activities is the Financial Services Regulatory Authority (FSRA), a financial regulator of the Abu Dhabi Global Markets (ADGM). The ADGM’s regulatory framework, launched in June 2018, regulates “spot crypto asset activities, including those undertaken by exchanges, custodians and other intermediaries,” according to the ADGM website.
- Part of the job of the ADGM’s framework is to classify crypto-offerings, on a case-by-case basis, as either securities or commodities.
- Cryptocurrencies are not legal tender in the UAE, and the Securities and Commodities Authority (SCA) has issued a public warning statement on ICOs.
- In other fintech developments, the UAE Blockchain Strategy 2021, launched in April 2018, aims to transform 50% of government transactions into the blockchain platform by 2021.
Cash, Cheques and Money Orders
- Cash is still commonly used, making up 70% of all POS transactions in 2017, with credit cards, prepaid/debit cards and digital wallets representing 16%, 8% and 6% of transactions respectively. However, cash usage is on the decline as card and digital payments become more common.
- Cheques are a common form of cashless payment for retail and commercial payments. The UAE has a high volume of bounced cheques, with 4.3% of the value of cleared cheques returned in the first half of 2018.
- Cheques are truncated into electronic images and then cleared through ICCS. Final settlement is made through UAEFTS same day.
- Money exchange houses, which facilitate money exchanges and remittances largely for the UAE’s huge expatriate population, are regulated by the Central Bank. New government standards issued early in 2018 aim to tighten oversight of the sector and eliminate cash money transfers due to concerns about money laundering and terrorism financing.
- Ranging from one-shop operations to exchange houses with 100+ branches across the seven emirates, money changers are an integral part of the UAE’s financial infrastructure.
1 Tax rate varies from Emirate to Emirate; no federal corporate tax
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Sources: IMF, World Economic Forum, PwC, Central Bank of the UAE, Nasdaq Dubai, RAK Center for Statistics and Studies, Association for Financial Professionals, OECD, DBS, Reuters, Gulf Business, Noor Bank.
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