Belgium's economy is characterised by its private enterprises, central geographical location, highly developed transportation infrastructures and a widely-diversified industrial base. Belgium is heavily reliant on world trade, with two-thirds of its GDP driven by exports.
The regulatory environment in Belgium is highly efficient, making it the fastest place in Europe to set up a business. With its unique tax regime comprising several tax deductions such as notional interest, effectively Belgium's corporate tax rate is significantly lower than the nominal rate. Moreover, Belgium is widely connected with multimodal transportations, allowing an efficient and seamless logistics infrastructure around other European countries through Belgium.
The Belgian banking system is highly sophisticated with no restrictions towards movement of capital and minimal regulatory requirements. More than half of the banking transactions are international transactions due to the extent of international business conducted in Belgium.
In recent years, the Sino-Belgium bilateral ties have deepened as China becomes Belgium's most important trading partner in Asia. China has also offered a "one million euro" loan programme in Belgium, to finance Chinese entrepreneurs in doing business around Europe.
What solutions are available in Belgium?
|Treasury Centres||A centralised treasury is one way to reduce the tax burden, centralise risk management, improve liquidity and enhance yield on cash.|
|Interest Optimisation||Maximise your interest yield from for your balances held with the bank.|
|Notional Pooling||Cash balances in different accounts are notionally offset to derive the net balance, which is then used to calculate interest.|
|Sweeping/ Zero Balance Account (ZBA)||ZBA are checking accounts with zero balances where funds are physically swept to eliminate excess balances and maintain greater control over disbursements.|
|In-house Banks (IHB)||In-house banks provide corporate treasurers with another method of centralising and consolidating their business.|
|Intercompany loans||Similar to bank loans, intercompany loans refer to lending between entities within the same group.|
Corporate Treasury in Belgium
Belgium is ranked as one of the top 20 most competitive economies in the world and was one of the founding members of the European Union. Here, we highlight some of the key benefits relevant to treasury and cash management in Belgium.
Financial market development:
- The World Economic Forum ranks Belgium 36th in the world for financial market development in The Global Competitiveness Report 2015-2016.
- It ranks Belgium 65th in the world for the soundness of its banks. It rates it reasonably highly for the ease of access to loans, venture capital and financing through local equity markets.
- Belgium has excellent business infrastructure, a highly educated multilingual workforce and a sound legal environment.
- There are no foreign exchange controls in Belgium.
Sophistication of banking systems:
- There more than 95 banks operating in Belgium, of which 60 are branches of foreign banks, the majority of which are from the neighboring countries of France, the Netherlands and Luxembourg. There are 21 representative offices of foreign banks in Belgium.
- Belgium's foreign exchange market has an average daily turnover of US$23bn (Bank for International Settlements triennial global survey 2016).
- Belgium has a well-developed debt market with both government and corporate bonds widely available.
- The banking industry is regulated by the National Bank of Belgium and the Financial Services and Markets Authority. As a Eurozone country it is also covered by the Single Supervisory Mechanism.
- The Corporate Income Tax rate is 33%, plus a 3% crisis tax, giving an effective rate of 33.99%. Reduced rates are available for companies with incomes of up to EUR322,500 a year.
- Under certain circumstances companies have to pay a fairness tax of 5.15% on their distributed dividends.
- The Belgium government is in the process of reforming the CIT regime to make it more competitive.
- Resident companies pay tax on their worldwide income. Non-resident companies are taxed on income deriving from Belgium.
- VAT is charged at a standard rate of 21%. Certain goods and services qualify for lower rates of 6% and 12% or are VAT exempt.
- Capital gains on shares is taxed at 0.412% providing certain conditions are met. If these conditions are not met the rate is 25.75%.
- Interest income is taxed as corporate income. Interest expenses are tax deductible. Notional Interest Deduction can be claimed at a rate of 1.131% in 2017, and 0.237% in 2018.
- Foreign tax credits may be provided where tax has been paid on certain foreign-sourced income.
- Withholding tax of 0%, 15% or 25% is paid on interest and dividends for resident companies. Non-resident companies generally pay a rate of 27%. Where a tax treaty is in place, rates range from 0% to 25% on dividends and interest.
- Belgium has tax treaties with more than 100 countries and territories.
Benefits for regional treasury centres:
- Belgium is growing in popularity as a location for shared service centres, with the government naming the development of this sector as a key priority.
- Cash concentration and notional pooling are available in Belgium on a domestic and cross-border basis, but each group within a company must be treated as a separate legal identity, which can have tax implications.
- Belgium is a member of the pan-European TARGET2 real-time gross settlement system.
- Belgium has one of the most extensive tax treaty networks in the world.
- Belgium is a Eurozone country with trading hours that overlap with Asia, Europe and North America.
- There are 89 commercial banks, of which 63 are foreign banks and representative offices of foreign banks and 26 are local banks.
- Due to its proximity and Brussels being the capital of the European Union (EU), Belgium's banking sector has a diverse, international presence of financial institutions.
- The four leading banks are BNP Paribas Fortis, KBC Bank, Belfius Bank (state owned) and ING Bank Belgium, together taking up 58% of total banking assets (end of 2015).
- Residents may hold foreign and domestic currency accounts both domestically and overseas. Domestic currency accounts are fully convertible into foreign currency.
- Non-residents may hold foreign and domestic currency accounts both domestically and overseas. Domestic currency accounts are fully convertible into foreign currency.
- Interest is available on current accounts and term deposits.
Legal and Regulatory
- The National Bank of Belgium (NBB) is an autonomous institution and a member of the European System of Central Banks (ESCB).
- The European Central Bank (ECB) supervises banks within the eurozone that are regarded as 'significant' through the Single Supervisory Mechanism (SSM), and other 'less significant' banks are supervised by the national central bank, such as the NBB.
- Belgium is one of the founding members of the EU.
- Belgium has anti-money laundering and counter terrorism financing legislation in place, and follows European Union (EU) anti-money laundering directives.
- There are no foreign exchange controls in place.
- A company is resident if it is registered in Belgium or its main management activity or location of effective management is carried out in Belgium.
- Belgium has set up a financial intelligence unit, the Financial Information Processing Unit (CTIF-CFI), which is a member of the Egmont Group.
Belgium’s national pan-European TARGET2 Real-time Gross Settlement (RTGS) system
(Centre for the Exchange of Operations Clearing and Settlement Mechanism)
Automated multilateral net settlement system
SEPA (Single Euro Payments Area)
EU integrated payment infrastructure
- Credit transfers are all automated in Belgium.
- High value and urgent credit transfers are settled through TARGET2_BE in real time.
- Low value and non-urgent SEPA transactions are cleared same or next day through CEC CSM.
- Used for payroll, supplier and third-party payments.
- The SEPA Credit Transfers (SCT) scheme is used for retail transactions and is available for urgent and high priority payments (no maximum threshold) within the SEPA.
Direct debit (autodebits):
- Used for low-value, regular transactions such as utility bills.
- CEC CSM clears all SEPA direct debits.
- The SEPA Direct Debit (SDD) scheme is used for urgent and high priority retail payments (no maximum threshold) within the SEPA. It is mandatory for all banks in the eurozone to offer SDD facilities and banks outside of the eurozone are required to accept SDD transactions.
- Cheques usage is in rapid decline, being fast outpaced by electronic transactions and also due to the costs incurred from cheque collection.
- If they are used, it is usually for one-off, high value payments such as for property purchases.
- For high value (over EUR 25 million), irregular and foreign cheques, they are truncated into electronic images and exchanged between banks and processed as credit transfers.
- Low value cheques are cleared through CEC CSM.
- Payment cards are becoming increasingly popular, especially debit cards.
- Mister Cash (Bancontact) is the most common debit card in use (about 95% of debit cards in circulation). The card is linked to the user's Belgian bank account and also has a Maestro function.
- The main payment card brands (excluding Mister Cash) are Visa and MasterCard, with American Express and Diners Club credit cards also in circulation. All payment cards are SEPA and EMV compliant.
- Card payments are usually processed through Atos Worldline card processing centre, which is linked to the CEC CSM system.
- There are approximately 188,080 POS terminals (2015) and 7,000 ATM terminals (2016), which are run by Atos Worldline. All ATM and POS terminals are EMV compliant.
Other payment schemes
- Reloadable prepaid payment cards are available and are offered by many of the banks such as the Hello prepaid card and Moneytrans.
- Mobile and online payment methods are becoming more popular and there are growing number of providers, some of which are Europe or world-wide such as Mobiano, Sofort and ecoPayz.
Bitcoin not a threat
The governor of the National Bank of Belgium has said Bitcoin is not a threat to central banks because it is not stable enough to be appealing. Jan Smets said Bitcoin was not trusted as a currency because there was no authority overseeing the network and it was not guaranteed by a central bank. But he added that creating a blockchain-based digital currency could help to reduce the limitations central banks face in cutting interest rates to below zero.
Read more about the development here
Edebex expands to Portugal
Belgium cash flow solutions group Edebex has teamed up with Portuguese digital bank Banco BNI Europa to offer its innovative funding platform to companies in Portugal. The platform helps firms to sell their outstanding invoices to investors online, enabling them to get cash within 72 hours. Investors benefit through having access to a low-risk alternative investment. The platform was previously only available in Belgium, France and Luxembourg.
Read more about the development here
Independent P2P payment app launched
Internet payment solutions company Wirecard has added a person-to-person payment function to its mobile app boon. The move enables users in Belgium to transfer money to other individuals through their mobile phone. Boon already enables people to make point of sale mobile payments, online payments with a digital credit card and to take out instant microloans. Wirecard claims to be the only fully digitalised payment product in Europe that operates independently of the banks.
Read more about the development here
This Market Profile is brought to you by DBS. Get in touch with us for further insights on doing treasury in Belgium and take advantage of our innovative solutions to empower your business. Click here to find out more.
Sources: IMF World Economic Outlook database, October 2016; CIA World Factbook; Trading Economics; PwC
Please note that the information contained in this document, assembled based on information available and accurate as at July 2017, is of a general nature only and is subject to change whether for economic, political, social or other reasons.